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Period Ii The Church From The Pe

In the second period of the history of the Church under the Christian
Empire, the Church, although existing in two divisions of the Empire and
experiencing very different political fortunes, may still be regarded as
forming a whole. The theological controversies distracting the Church,
although different in the two halves of the Graeco-Roman world, were felt
to some extent in both divisions of the Empire and not merely in the one
in which they were principally fought out; and in the condemnation of
heresy, each half of the Church assisted the other. Though already marked
lines of cleavage are clearly perceptible, and in the West the dominating
personality of Augustine forwarded the development of the characteristic
theology of the West, setting aside the Greek influences exerted through
Hilary, Ambrose, Rufinus, and Jerome, and adding much that was never
appreciated in the East--yet the opponent of Augustine was condemned at the
general council of Ephesus, 431, held by Eastern bishops in the East; and
at the same time in the East the controversies regarding the union of the
divine and human natures in Christ, although of interest almost entirely
in the East and fought out by men of the East, found their preliminary
solution at Chalcedon in 451 upon a basis proposed by the West. On the
other hand, the attitudes of the two halves of the Church toward many
profound problems were radically different, and the emergence of the Roman
See as the great centre of the West amid the overturn of the Roman world
by the barbarians, and the steadily increasing ascendency of the State
over the Church in the East tended inevitably to separate ecclesiastically
as well as politically the two divisions of the Empire. As the emperors of
the East attempted to use dogmatic parties in the support of a political
policy, the differences between the Church of the East, under the Roman
Emperor, and the Church of the West, where the imperial authority had
ceased to be a reality, became manifest in a schism resulting from the
Monophysite controversy and the attempt to reconcile the Monophysites.

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